Utilitarian and Classical Criminology
In the field of criminology, there are two schools: utilitarian and classical. The classical school has roots in the work of the Enlightenment, referring to the work of Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria in the 18th century. Both of these schools are still regarded as the primary pillars of modern criminology. But, what distinguishes them from each other? The social contract school is dominated by Beccaria’s rational choice theory.
The 18th century brought two important philosophers into the world of criminology, one of whom was Cesare Beccaria. Both were key contributors to penal reform and the debate surrounding punishment. This essay explores their respective roles in the debate on punishment in the eighteenth century, as well as the evolution of modern correctional practices. This essay concludes with a discussion of the relationship between Beccaria and Bentham.
The work of Italian psychiatrist Cesare Lombroso in Classical criminology was shaped by his theory of atavism. According to Lombroso, some people are born criminals and revert to earlier forms of behavior, attitudes, and approaches. The idea of atavism incriminates the human being as an atavistic creature, with certain anatomical and behavioral characteristics that make some people more criminal than others.
Cesare Beccaria’s Criminology
The revolutionary theories of Cesare Beccaria’s Crimineology are still relevant today. The underlying principle of Beccaria’s Criminology is that human beings are rational and seek their own satisfaction. The relationship between criminal law and crime hinges on this notion. Beccaria argued that crime often occurs when people place their own needs above the interests of others. This leads to the question of whether a person is guilty if they have made the wrong choice.
Cesare Beccaria’s rational choice theory
The rational choice theory came out of the thinking of Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria and influenced the classic school of criminology in the 1700s and 1800s. It has since been expanded and modified to include morality, values, and emotions. It also has a great impact on recent history, leading to the abolishment of the death penalty in some states. It has remained a controversial topic for debate, however.
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The famous essay, Beccaria’s Classical Crimminology, first appeared in 1764, when the author was just 26 years old. It criticized the criminal justice system for its inequity and barbarism, highlighting how crimes are often perpetrated by powerful people. The author also emphasized the importance of laws and punishments for crime prevention, arguing that punishments should be proportional to the crime committed.